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The resort of classical scholars to Chinese texts and the language they were written in may be traced to the beginning of the European Renaissance, when it became apparent that ancient grammar had valuable insights to offer. Greek grammar had been studied upwards of a millennium before Andreas Capellanus’ Grammatica graeca, a translation of the De variis linguarum cum disciplinibus of Dionysius Thrax, began to circulate in the early 14th century; in the 15th century, the De dialectica of Priscian became a principal reference for medieval teachers, and the Grammatik was used throughout Europe in universities and private study.
The first systematic, modern study of language learning was undertaken by Ludwig Wittgenstein, who from 1919 to 1921 studied in the grammar school in Cambridge. His main resource was the 1911 edition of Zimmer’s A Concise German Grammar, which formed the core of his Conversations with Wittgenstein, From Private Life to Philosophy, and his 1953 some of the Gesammelte Werke, edited and translated by Gary Hatfield. He also read Andrew Hurley’s A Modern Introduction to English Grammar (The Macmillan Company, London and New York, 1923). As Gatier explains, ‘The theory of grammar, which pervaded the first half of the nineteenth century, changed during the second half when the symbolic logic from Frege became more influential. As a result, there was no longer a theory of language based on an analysis of words and sentence structure.’ However, as Gatier notes ‘Wittgenstein’, in his Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus from 1929, had released the grammar of natural language from the limits of the artificial language games in which it had been generated. ‘His theory,’ writes Gatier, ‘are in the tradition of what we today call empirical psychology’, and the psychology of language is now of ‘central importance for the theory of meaning.’
According to the Marxist philosophy of marxism, the ideal language would be one in which each sentence was independent of the previous one. The language would be free of syntactical dependencies, as a language should be completely separated from the other languages.